Nevertheless, studies with genetic techniques involved have been used to map brain-specific foci for gender-specific behavior. The gynandromorph technique (which allows the creation of somatic sexual mosaic flies, in which some parts of the fly are male and other parts are female) has been used to locate anatomical sites that must have one sex or the other to properly perform a behavioral sequence (Hotta and Benzer, 1972). In this way, the first gender-specific focus maps for sequential bridal parade models were drawn (in the context of the earlier establishment of the required mosaic methods: Hotta and Benzer, 1976; Kankel and Hall, 1976). It is particularly interesting to note that in the adult male brain, neurons in the posterior dorsal part of the brain (possibly corresponding to the posterior part of the intercerebral pars) have been shown to be male neurons so that a male can advertise with a female (Hall, 1977, 1979). However, the low frequency of gynandromorphism and the inability of the technique to control the exact position of the mosaic limited its power. The plasticity of courtship behavior depends on a number of sensory cues, including sight, smell, gustation, and hearing. The onset of courtship is reduced in the dark, and visually impaired men also advertise less (Pan et al., 2011; Joiner and Griffith, 1997; Ejima and Griffith, 2008). When a male is at a certain distance from a female, smell is the dominant sensory signal, but when a male is in close proximity to a female, he receives taste information by tapping and licking it. If we look at the response to a complex signal that involves multiple sensory modalities, we now realize that this response is not always additive. Experiments looking at multisensory integration in the midbrain have found clear evidence of superadditive multisensory improvement when comparing the responses of individual neurons to uni- and multimodal stimuli (Meredith and Stein, 1983). Multisensory responses have also been found in cells located in cortical areas of the rodent brain that have traditionally been considered completely modality-specific (Wallace, Ramachandran, & Stein, 2004). This could explain how a signal in one modality can affect the processing and perception of a signal in another modality.

However, as only a few examples have been documented so far, it is not yet clear whether such intermodal effects are exploited in courtship displays. Courtship may or may not involve other members of the herd. If the herd pursues the pair, other adults and young elephants may hinder their progress. Calves can be discarded by the bull and other adult cows can try to stand between the bulls and the partner they have chosen. This may be an attempt to ask the bull. This behavior of other elephants sometimes allows the potential partner to „escape“ from the bull, so the courtship sequence ends. Alternatively, the bull can draw his attention to another cow and chase her instead. Young bulls can interfere with mating by attacking the cow during ascent (Fig.

4.2). Juvenile mating disorders have been detected in other mammal species, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (Goodall 1971). It is possible that this disturbance by other elephants could reduce the number of successful mounts. In some species, sexually selected physical traits for male courtship displays can also be used for a partner in agonistic behavior between two males. In fiddle crabs (genus Uca), males have been sexually selected to have an enlarged claw that can absorb between one-third and one-half of their total body mass, and a normal claw. Although it is believed that the expanded claw evolved to be used in territorial defense combat, it is not uncommon for men to use this claw in the fight for a partner. [46] Although this claw has evolved as a weapon, it is also closely related to the courtship of crabs: it is rotated according to a certain pattern to attract females to mate. [47] Courtship displays are extremely diverse. They are known to be present in many sensory modalities and can even vary considerably from one closely related species to another (Andersson 1994; Bastock, 1967).

The most studied representations of courtship in the animal kingdom are the visually striking dances and acoustic cries of birds. Vibration and odour signals are also very common, particularly in arthropods (Hebets and Uetz, 1999; Houck and Reagan, 1990). Courtship can vary in duration, with some species having only a few seconds of nuptial interaction before mating (Bastock and Manning, 1955), several days of mutual interaction before copulation, such as in the pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) (Masonjones & Lewis, 1996) or the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) (Ancel, Gilbert and Beaulieu, 2013). .